“Sail on! Sail on!,” Philip José Farmer, 1952 – Monks following a religion based on science sail off the edge of a flat world.
Wikipedia: ” In an alternative 1492, the Earth is flat, though scientists and philosophers have doubts about its geological provenance, and an Angelo Angelli is mentioned as proving Aristotle’s axiom that objects of different weights drop with different velocities (which Galileo Galilei disproved in our world).”
Comments: Mentions Roger Bacon, Columbus. Themes of religion, knowledge, history. Read in The Road to Science Fiction, ed. James Gunn, who describes it as highlighting the “accidents of history.” Read in A Century of Science Fiction, ed. Damon Knight. Knight on the trope of the time paradox. One way to tie up time paradoxes is to tie them in a knot, as Heinlein did in “By His Bootstraps.” Another way is to use a parallel universe, as Farmer did in this story, and as Murray Leinster did in 1934 in “Sidewise in Time.”
Author: Wikipedia: “Philip José Farmer (January 26, 1918 – February 25, 2009) was an American author, principally known for his award-winning science fiction and fantasy novels and short stories.”