“The Curious Republic of Gondour,” Mark Twain, 1875 — “[A]n extrapolated utopia in which votes are proportioned according to money and education.” (H. Bruce Franklin)
Comments: Online text at Project Gutenberg. “Twain proposed a state in which all citizens have at least one vote, but where further votes (up to a dozen) could be acquired through education, which was provided by the state for free, or by relative wealth. Furthermore, no one was accepted to any public office without passing strenuous competitive examinations.” (Wikipedia) See also H. Bruce Franklin’s commentary in Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century.
Author: Wikipedia: “Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist.”